Recently, 1D (one-dimensional) iron oxides have been the subject of numerous fundamental researches aimed at obtaining new knowledge about the chemical and physical properties of these materials and, based on this, proposing applications in various technologies, especially advanced ones. In doing so, it is important to institute relations between the type and conditions of chemical synthesis and the properties of the researched material, such as the morphology and size of particles with changes in structural, magnetic and optical properties. The aim of the proposed research is to obtain new knowledge about kinetics, phase transformation and the mechanism of formation of 1 D a-Fe2O3. By controlled doping with selected metal ions, the optical, magnetic and catalytic properties of 1D a-Fe2O3 will be improved. Nanostructures ranging from fine anisotropic nanoparticles to several hundreds of micrometers long nanofibers will be investigated. Since the formation of specific nanostructures depends on numerous experimental parameters, special attention will be paid to monitoring the kinetics and phase transformations during the formation of a-Fe2O3 nanostructures using sophisticated structural, microscopic and spectroscopic instrumental techniques. To achieve the set goals, the following research is proposed: (I) monitoring the kinetics and phase transformation of the formation of undoped and doped 1D a-Fe2O3 nanostructures from concentrated or partially neutralized FeCl3 solutions, (II) the development of new synthetic procedures for obtaining very long undoped and doped nanofibers a- Fe2O3 by the electrospinning method and (III) testing the photocatalytic activity of the synthesized 1D a-Fe2O3 nanostructures. In addition to acquiring new fundamental knowledge about 1D nanostructured materials, materials with precisely defined physical and chemical properties will also be prepared.