Nanomaterijali i nanotehnologija za naprednu fotonaponsku energiju
The NanoPV project aims at making a breakthrough step-change in photovoltaics by the removal of a set of bottlenecks which have been identified to block the application of nanostructures for high-efficiency, low-cost solar cells. The bottlenecks arise from the present lack of up-scalable processes that can meet the needs for nanomaterials in PV applications, and the lack of relevant equipment and industrial lines. In order to remove these bottlenecks, the main objectives of NanoPV are: 1) To develop technologies that can increase the efficiency and reduce the processing cost of existing silicon solar cell technologies using nano-scale effects provided by nanomaterials to above 20% for wafer based and above 15 % for thin film silicon based solar cells at a processing cost for modules well below 1 €/watt. 2) To design and to fabricate low cost solar cells entirely from nanomaterials by using nanostructures. An efficiency of above 10 % at processing costs well below 1 €/watt is targeted with potential of further significant improvements in the future. 3) To develop up-scalable cost effective processes and equipment in order to implement both enhanced standard solar cells and solar cell based on nanomaterials as well as related modules to existing pilot lines. 4) To create new market opportunities for the industrial partners. Nanotechnology will be applied for both already existing conventional Si solar cells (wafer and thin-film based) and for advanced solar cells entirely based on nanostructures. The main scientific efforts will be on understanding and exploitation of such nanomaterials as i) 0D quantum dots, nanocrystals and nanoparticles, ii) 1D nanowires and nanorods, and iii) 2D nanomaterials such as ultrathin layers. A large number of specialised technologies will be applied in the project. Therefore, in order to ensure successful completion, a comparatively large consortium of 9 complementary research partners and 3 industries has been assembled.