The waterways are becoming more and crucial for coastal economy, and, paradoxically such areas remain very vulnerable to terrorism attacks especially against underwater IED threats. A major challenge is provide new tools for keeping naval infrastructure safe: harbours, ships, coastal areas, ferry terminals, oil and gas terminals, power/nuclear plants… The main objective of UNCOSS project is to provide tools for the non-destructive inspection of underwater objects mainly based on neutron sensor. This technology used has already been experimented for Land Protection (especially in the frame of FP6/Euritrack project). The application of this technology for underwater protection will be a major achievement. The UNCOSS is fully relevant considering the work program and adresses the following topics : detection of dangerous materiels (especially IED) and surveillance in wide maritime areas. Many end-users are definitively interested in the UNCOSS result, among them three Port Authorities located in Adriatic area are partners of the project.